The coordination of policy between different levels of government is crucial if London, and the UK, is going to reduce the harmful effects. As already outlined, boroughs have a number of policy levers at their disposal, but they do not have all the power they need to address this issue alone. There are some things that can only be addressed by the Mayor, such as adequate public transport provision for all of London.
There are some initiatives that have to be led by national government, such as reducing the pollution from power plants and introducing national policies to encourage cleaner vehicle production.
Innovative technology will also play a role in providing further solutions and London needs to keep an eye out for this around the world. It is important that boroughs, the Mayor and government continue to be open to innovation and work with different organisations to trial these as appropriate.